Rational Use of Antibiotics

Sharayu P. Ninawe

Dept. Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Aissms College Of Pharmacy, Pune.


Rational Use of Antibiotics

“Patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community,” according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This is how rational medicine use is defined. Since improper use of antibiotics can have negative effects on patients, lead to the establishment of antibiotic resistance, and raise the expense of healthcare, it is crucial to use medicines rationally.

Generally speaking, antibiotics are only effective in treating bacterial illnesses. Antibiotics cannot cure viral infections or stop patients from developing secondary bacterial infections. When choosing an antibiotic, three key aspects must be taken into account:

01. According to the Etiological Agent:

Clinical expertise and laboratory assistance are combined to determine the etiological agent. When a bacteriology report is obtained, it still needs to be interpreted. Bacterial isolates from culture specimens may not actually be pathogens but rather normal flora, colonizers, or pollutants. Sensitivity results, where available, serve solely as a therapy recommendation at most.


2. In accordance with the Patient:

A) Age:

The elderly and the young are typically more vulnerable to the negative effects of antibiotics. The liver and kidneys of newborns are still developing, affecting how well they can metabolize and eliminate antibiotics. They might have a negative impact on a child’s developing organs and tissues. Kidney damage and allergic reactions are more common in older people. Patients with specific genetic defects may experience significant adverse reactions when taking antibiotics

(For example: Sulphonamides in individuals lacking in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase).

B) Pregnancy:

Antibiotics should be avoided during pregnancy, although erythromycin and beta-lactam antibiotics are likely the safest choices if one must be taken.

C)  Infections:

The optimum antibiotic for the suspected pathogen must be started as soon as possible in cases of serious infections like bacteremic shock and meningitis. Postponing therapy will raise the risk of both death and morbidity. When treating less severe conditions like otitis media, where spontaneous healing is typical, an antibiotic that targets the dominating organisms is sufficient.


03. Considering the Antibiotic’s Dosage and Pharmacokinetic Qualities:

Adequate knowledge of the pharmacokinetic features of the antibiotic used by the healthcare professional is necessary.

Aspects influencing pharmacokinetic characteristics:

  1. Routes of Administration
  2. Therapeutic Concentrations

The doctor should also be cautious of drug interactions because many antibiotics can have effects on non-antibiotic medications. When choosing antibiotics, it’s crucial to take the patient’s medication compliance into account.

Antibiotics are necessary medications in medicine and are used to treat illnesses caused by bacteria. Hospital patients receive a wide variety of antibiotics. A patient’s risk of injury is reduced when the best antibiotic is used. We must use antibiotics responsibly since antibiotic resistance is a global issue. Proper usage of antibiotics can be ensured by having a conversation about antibiotic therapy with patients during their hospital stay.